Device Selection Factor

Deciding What Switch to use (read: to Buy :p )

Selecting a Router

We need to match the characteristics of the router to its purpose. Similar to the switch, cost and interface types and speeds must be considered as well. Additional factors for choosing a router include:

  • Expandability: bisa di tambah2in ga ?? sama kek motor…bisa di kasi aksesoris lagi ga…nambah port ?? nambah modul ???
  • Media: mo pake Ethernet ?? serial?? Coaxial ??? ato kedua2nya…??
  • Operating System Features: Depending on the version of the operating system, the router can support certain features and services such as:
    • Security
    • Quality of Service (QoS)
    • Voice over IP (VoIP)
    • Routing multiple Layer 3 protocols
    • Special services such as Network Address Translation (NAT) and Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)

Juniper Router J2350

For the selection of devices, the budget is an important consideration. Routers can be expensive based on interfaces and features needed. Additional modules, such as fiber-optics, can increase the costs. The media used to connect to the router should be supported without needing to purchase additional modules

LAN Cabling

When planning the installation of LAN cabling, there are four physical areas to consider:

  • Work area
  • Telecommunications room, also known as the distribution facility
  • Backbone cabling, also known as vertical cabling
  • Distribution cabling, also known as horizontal cabling
    • Total length : contoh > FastEthernet hanya bisa 100m SEBELUM sinyal elektromagnetiknya mulai melemah

Each media type has its advantages and disadvantages. Some of the factors to consider are:

  • Cable length – Does the cable need to span across a room or from building to building?
  • Cost – Does the budget allow for using a more expensive media type? (use Fiber Optic maybe ?? wkwkwk)
  • Bandwidth – Does the technology used with the media provide adequate bandwidth?
  • Ease of installation – Does the implementation team have the ability to install the cable or is a vendor required? (use Wireless ???)
  • Susceptible to EMI/RFI – Is the local environment going to interfere with the signal?

Typically, when connecting different types of devices, use a straight-through cable. And when connecting the same type of device, use a crossover cable.

Straight-Through = buat Komputer “vs” Switch, Switch “vs” Router (dipakai buat yg berbeda jenis)

Cross-Over = Switch “vs” Switch, Router “vs” Router, Komputer “vs” Router (koq Komputer dengan Router ?? Router itu punya CPU sama kek Komputer…JADIIII anggep Router itu computer juga…dan memang computer kan bisa dijadiin Router juga kan ??)

Many devices allow the UTP Ethernet port to be set to MDI or MDIX. This can be done in one of three ways, depending on the features of the device:

  1. On some devices, ports may have a mechanism that electrically swaps the transmit and receive pairs. The port can be changed from MDI to MDIX by engaging the mechanism.
  2. As part of the configuration, some devices allow for selecting whether a port functions as MDI or as MDIX.
  3. Many newer devices have an automatic crossover feature.

This feature allows the device to detect the required cable type and configures the interfaces accordingly. On some devices, this auto-detection is performed by default. Other devices require an interface configuration command for enabling MDIX auto-detection. (jadi fitur MDI/MDIX itu kek lo masukin kabel straight dari switch ke switch….otomatis switch jadiin cross over,klo ga sala Router ga ada Fitur MDI/MDIX secara default de, switch ada, jadi mesti di konfig sendiri)

*RJ-11 = kabel telepon

Winchester konektor yang diatas biasanya terdapat di ISP untuk CSU/DSU

CSU/DSU (Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit) = Hardware device yang meng konversi frame data digital dari LAN ke WAN atau sebaliknya

DSL Router..biasanya si buat ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line), tapi gambar yg diatas adalah versi Cisco….MAHAL PASTINYA…mending yang diabang2 elektronik…beli modem bang !! hahaha

The following terms describe the types of devices that maintain the link between a sending and a receiving device:

  • Data Communications Equipment (DCE) – A device that supplies the clocking services to another device. Typically, this device is at the WAN access provider end of the link.
  • Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) – A device that receives clocking services from another device and adjusts accordingly. Typically, this device is at the WAN customer or user end of the link.

If a serial connection is made directly to a service provider or to a device that provides signal clocking such as a channel service unit/data service unit (CSU/DSU), the router is considered to be data terminal equipment (DTE) and will use a DTE serial cable. (pokoknya yang buat clock rate adalah DCE)

DCEs and DTEs are used in WAN connections. The communication via a WAN connection is maintained by providing a clock rate that is acceptable to both the sending and the receiving device. In most cases, the telco or ISP provides the clocking service that synchronizes the transmitted signal.

For example, if a device connected via a WAN link is sending its signal at 1.544 Mbps, each receiving device must use a clock, sending out a sample signal every 1/1,544,000th of a second. The timing in this case is extremely short. The devices must be able to synchronize to the signal that is sent and received very quickly.

By assigning a clock rate to the router, the timing is set. This allows a router to adjust the speed of its communication operations, thereby synchronizing with the devices connected to it.

*nanti ada kasus tentang interface serial…”shut”..”no shut”…”protocol down”…”administratively down”…bla bla bla…nih link buat liat kasus serial kabel

Switch (yang manageable…bisa dipasangin IP…ya itu gunanya..untuk bisa di telnet trus di manage/konfig)

There are many reasons to divide a network into subnets:

  • Manage Broadcast Traffic – Broadcasts can be controlled because one large broadcast domain is divided into a number of smaller domains. Not every host in the system receives every broadcast.
  • Different Network Requirements – If different groups of users require specific network or computing facilities, it is easier to manage these requirements if those users who share requirements are all together on one subnet.
  • Security – Different levels of network security can be implemented based on network addresses. This enables the management of access to different network and data services.

Yang terhubung ke 1 switch…BIASANYA dijadikan satu subnet

Yang point-to-point kek interface port router ke interface port router yang lain…jadiin 1 subnet (contoh /30…/30 berarti ada 2 host aja…. dan

Calculating Address

Without VLSM


How to configure Router/Switch (Under Windows XP)

we will usually use HyperTerminal because most varieties of Windows have it. This program can be found under All Programs > Accessories > Communications. Select HyperTerminal.

Open HyperTerminal, confirm the chosen serial port number, and then configure the port with these settings:

  • Bits per second: 9600 bps
  • Data bits: 8
  • Parity: None
  • Stop bits: 1
  • Flow control: None

How to configure Router/Switch (Under Windows Vista, 7, Linux)

use Putty / SecureCRT…

  • bisa telnet
  • atau Serial (liat dulu di serial / COM port berapa kepasang di komputer….cara liatnya klik kanan my computer –> properties –> device manager