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Planning and Cabling Network

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Device Selection Factor

Deciding What Switch to use (read: to Buy :p )

Selecting a Router

We need to match the characteristics of the router to its purpose. Similar to the switch, cost and interface types and speeds must be considered as well. Additional factors for choosing a router include:

  • Expandability: bisa di tambah2in ga ?? sama kek motor…bisa di kasi aksesoris lagi ga…nambah port ?? nambah modul ???
  • Media: mo pake Ethernet ?? serial?? Coaxial ??? ato kedua2nya…??
  • Operating System Features: Depending on the version of the operating system, the router can support certain features and services such as:
    • Security
    • Quality of Service (QoS)
    • Voice over IP (VoIP)
    • Routing multiple Layer 3 protocols
    • Special services such as Network Address Translation (NAT) and Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)

Juniper Router J2350

For the selection of devices, the budget is an important consideration. Routers can be expensive based on interfaces and features needed. Additional modules, such as fiber-optics, can increase the costs. The media used to connect to the router should be supported without needing to purchase additional modules

LAN Cabling

When planning the installation of LAN cabling, there are four physical areas to consider:

  • Work area
  • Telecommunications room, also known as the distribution facility
  • Backbone cabling, also known as vertical cabling
  • Distribution cabling, also known as horizontal cabling
    • Total length : contoh > FastEthernet hanya bisa 100m SEBELUM sinyal elektromagnetiknya mulai melemah

Each media type has its advantages and disadvantages. Some of the factors to consider are:

  • Cable length – Does the cable need to span across a room or from building to building?
  • Cost – Does the budget allow for using a more expensive media type? (use Fiber Optic maybe ?? wkwkwk)
  • Bandwidth – Does the technology used with the media provide adequate bandwidth?
  • Ease of installation – Does the implementation team have the ability to install the cable or is a vendor required? (use Wireless ???)
  • Susceptible to EMI/RFI – Is the local environment going to interfere with the signal?

Typically, when connecting different types of devices, use a straight-through cable. And when connecting the same type of device, use a crossover cable.

Straight-Through = buat Komputer “vs” Switch, Switch “vs” Router (dipakai buat yg berbeda jenis)

Cross-Over = Switch “vs” Switch, Router “vs” Router, Komputer “vs” Router (koq Komputer dengan Router ?? Router itu punya CPU sama kek Komputer…JADIIII anggep Router itu computer juga…dan memang computer kan bisa dijadiin Router juga kan ??)

Many devices allow the UTP Ethernet port to be set to MDI or MDIX. This can be done in one of three ways, depending on the features of the device:

  1. On some devices, ports may have a mechanism that electrically swaps the transmit and receive pairs. The port can be changed from MDI to MDIX by engaging the mechanism.
  2. As part of the configuration, some devices allow for selecting whether a port functions as MDI or as MDIX.
  3. Many newer devices have an automatic crossover feature.

This feature allows the device to detect the required cable type and configures the interfaces accordingly. On some devices, this auto-detection is performed by default. Other devices require an interface configuration command for enabling MDIX auto-detection. (jadi fitur MDI/MDIX itu kek lo masukin kabel straight dari switch ke switch….otomatis switch jadiin cross over,klo ga sala Router ga ada Fitur MDI/MDIX secara default de, switch ada, jadi mesti di konfig sendiri)

*RJ-11 = kabel telepon

Winchester konektor yang diatas biasanya terdapat di ISP untuk CSU/DSU

CSU/DSU (Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit) = Hardware device yang meng konversi frame data digital dari LAN ke WAN atau sebaliknya

DSL Router..biasanya si buat ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line), tapi gambar yg diatas adalah versi Cisco….MAHAL PASTINYA…mending yang diabang2 elektronik…beli modem bang !! hahaha

The following terms describe the types of devices that maintain the link between a sending and a receiving device:

  • Data Communications Equipment (DCE) – A device that supplies the clocking services to another device. Typically, this device is at the WAN access provider end of the link.
  • Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) – A device that receives clocking services from another device and adjusts accordingly. Typically, this device is at the WAN customer or user end of the link.

If a serial connection is made directly to a service provider or to a device that provides signal clocking such as a channel service unit/data service unit (CSU/DSU), the router is considered to be data terminal equipment (DTE) and will use a DTE serial cable. (pokoknya yang buat clock rate adalah DCE)

DCEs and DTEs are used in WAN connections. The communication via a WAN connection is maintained by providing a clock rate that is acceptable to both the sending and the receiving device. In most cases, the telco or ISP provides the clocking service that synchronizes the transmitted signal.

For example, if a device connected via a WAN link is sending its signal at 1.544 Mbps, each receiving device must use a clock, sending out a sample signal every 1/1,544,000th of a second. The timing in this case is extremely short. The devices must be able to synchronize to the signal that is sent and received very quickly.

By assigning a clock rate to the router, the timing is set. This allows a router to adjust the speed of its communication operations, thereby synchronizing with the devices connected to it.

*nanti ada kasus tentang interface serial…”shut”..”no shut”…”protocol down”…”administratively down”…bla bla bla…nih link buat liat kasus serial kabel

Switch (yang manageable…bisa dipasangin IP…ya itu gunanya..untuk bisa di telnet trus di manage/konfig)

There are many reasons to divide a network into subnets:

  • Manage Broadcast Traffic – Broadcasts can be controlled because one large broadcast domain is divided into a number of smaller domains. Not every host in the system receives every broadcast.
  • Different Network Requirements – If different groups of users require specific network or computing facilities, it is easier to manage these requirements if those users who share requirements are all together on one subnet.
  • Security – Different levels of network security can be implemented based on network addresses. This enables the management of access to different network and data services.

Yang terhubung ke 1 switch…BIASANYA dijadikan satu subnet

Yang point-to-point kek interface port router ke interface port router yang lain…jadiin 1 subnet (contoh 192.168.1.0 /30…/30 berarti ada 2 host aja….192.168.1.1 dan 192.168.1.2)

Calculating Address


Without VLSM

With VLSM

How to configure Router/Switch (Under Windows XP)

we will usually use HyperTerminal because most varieties of Windows have it. This program can be found under All Programs > Accessories > Communications. Select HyperTerminal.

Open HyperTerminal, confirm the chosen serial port number, and then configure the port with these settings:

  • Bits per second: 9600 bps
  • Data bits: 8
  • Parity: None
  • Stop bits: 1
  • Flow control: None

How to configure Router/Switch (Under Windows Vista, 7, Linux)

use Putty / SecureCRT…

  • bisa telnet
  • atau Serial (liat dulu di serial / COM port berapa kepasang di komputer….cara liatnya klik kanan my computer –> properties –> device manager

Network Basic Theory 7 (IPv4)

3 Comments

yak…kali ini kita akan membahas tentang Ipv4 (Ipv6 ntar ya) mudah2an kedepannya akan kita kupas..tuntas..dan tajam…setajam…SILET (gaya host TV)

to the point aja yah…

kita akan bahas…mekanisme dibelakang penamaan Ipv4.

Alamat Ipv4 terdiri atas 32 bit yang dipecah (dikelompokkan) kedalam 4 oktet / bagian (1 oktet = 8 digit ,8×4 = 32 digit)

Contoh : alamat host A adalah 192.168.10.1 ← apa sih maksudnya ini ??

192.168.10.1 jika dibaca secara keseluruhan berarti adalah ALAMAT Ipv4 dari host A itu sendiri (bahasa orang awam…ini alamat rumah host A, LENGKAP dengan kodepos dan kelurahannya)

[192.168.10].1 ← 3 Oktet didepan disebut NETWORK (bahasa orang awam…ini alamat kelurahan/komplek dimana host A berada)

192.168.10.[1] ← angka 1 ini adalah nomor host A (bahasa orang awam…ini adalah NOMOR RUMAH host A)
bagaimanakah 192.168.10.1 diterjemahkan oleh komputer ?? ini dia gambarnya

gimana caranya si komputer tau…nomor terakhir itu host nya ?!? ah…jgn ngasal lu Man !! 

wkwkwk…itulah gunanya Subnet Mask

Subnet Mask digunakan untuk menentukan MANA angka2 yang menunjukkan kelurahan…MANA angka2 yang menunjukkan nomor rumah

yuk…pake contoh kasus yu…

bisa ga sih..IP 192.168.20.1 berkomunikasi dengan IP 192.168.20.6 ?!?! dari kasat mana sih kek nya bisa….

tapi bagaimana CARA komputer mengetahui bahwa mereka BISA berkomunikasi !??

IP PC

IP

nah…nomor network itu didapat dari “menjumlahkan” IP dengan Subnet Mask, tapi bukan 1 + 1 = 2

1 “ketemu” 1 sama dengan 1 (1 + 1 = 1)

1 atau 0 ketemu 0 sama dengan 0 ( [1 atau 0] + 0 = 0)

nah…ngerti kan ?!?!

trus caranya gimana alamat 192.168.10.1 diterjemahkan ke 1100000 (see above) ??

pertama2 kita harus ingat “rumus” dibawah ini

contoh nilai 172…gimana cara jadiin 0101010101 begini ???

contoh 172.16.4.20 :

trus klo binary ke desimal gimana ?

Inget rumus yang tadi ga ?? nih gw kasi lagi

contoh 11111101…berapakah ini ???

liat posisi angkanya (dari position diatas)

1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 = 128+64+32+16+8+4+NOL+1 = 253…selese…^_^

1 lagi yaitu Broadcast Address, gunanya buat apa nie ??

Broadcast Address digunakan untuk mengirimkan packet kesemua host yang berada dalam network yang sama

Broadcast address mengambil host tertinggi untuk dijadikan broadcaster

Contoh 192.168.10.5

  • [192.168.10].5 –> 192.168.10 adalah network address, biasanya ditambahkan 192.168.10.[0] , kenapa ada angka 0 ?? untuk menandakan bahwa alamat 1 sampai 255 adalah bagian dari network (komplek perumahan) 192.168.10
  • 192.168.10.[5] –>ini host…’nuff said
  • 192.168.10.[255] –> angka 255 ini adalah angka tertinggi/nomor rumah tertinggi dari komplek perumahan/network 192.168.10.0. Alamat inilah yang dipergunakan untuk broadcast (ingat 255 means 11111111…8 angka SATU)

*klo dipikir2…angka 0 buat network…angka 255 buat broadcast…so…berapakah actual host (rumah yang bisa di tempatin) nya ???..ya…1 sampai 254

Network Prefixes

Apa nie network prefixes ???

Pernah liat kata2 seperti ini ga ?? 192.168.1.0 /24

Ya…/24 inilah yang disebut prefix

Inget lagi…IPv4 address itu 32 bit

Contoh : 11111111 . 11111111 . 11111111. 00000000

/24 itu menunjukkan apa ?? coba itung de…..angka 1 diatas ada berapa ???

Nah itu dia ^_^V

Ini ada lagi sedikit contoh gambar:

Inilah yang dinamakan VLSM (Variable Length Subnet Mask)

Ini dia yg pengen banget gw jelasin dulu2….

In an IPv4 network, the hosts can communicate one of three different ways:

  • Unicast – the process of sending a packet from one host to an individual host, ’nuff said
  • Broadcast – the process of sending a packet from one host to all hosts in the network. (Broadcast transmission is used for the location of special services/devices for which the address is not known or when a host needs to provide information to all the hosts on the network)
    • Directed Broadcast: intinya adalah broadcast yang bisa di kirim/di forward dari router (bisa ke network lain), walaupun aslinya ga bisa, tapi bisa di konfigurasi untuk memforward broadcast kalau diinginkan
    • Limited Broadcast: broadcast yang dikirim ke semua host dalam network yang sama
  • Multicast – the process of sending a packet from one host to a selected group of hosts

Khusus untuk multicast akan dijelaskan pake bahasa inggris (gw males capek2 ngetik…hahahah)

Some examples of multicast transmission are:

  • Video and audio broadcasts
  • Routing information exchange by routing protocols
  • Distribution of software
  • News feeds
  • Multicast Clients

Hosts that wish to receive particular multicast data are called multicast clients. The multicast clients use services initiated by a client program to subscribe to the multicast group.

IPv4 punya special block of addresses dari 224.0.0.0 sampai 239.255.255.255 untuk multicast groups addressing.

Dibawah ini adalah reserved IPv4 address, type, kegunaan, dan RFC berapa yang menyatakan ini reserved:

Alamat2 IP ada yang bisa terkoneksi ke Internet dan ada juga yang ga bisa…contohnya ya tadi…Experimental Address.

Selain experimental address, ada lagi yang di namakan private IP address, dimana IP address ini hanya bisa tehubung ke jaringan local saja, tidak bisa ke Internet (jaringan diluar network dia)

Kenapa ??? salah satu alasannya adalah untuk menghemat alamat IPv4 yg sudah mau habis (dan memang sudah habis)

Trus bagaimana private IP ini bisa Internetan ?? caranya adalah dengan men-“translate” private IP ini dan digantikan dengan Public IP yang (biasanya) dipunyai oleh ISP, system inilah yang disebut NAT (Network Address Translation)

Special IPv4 Addressing

Seperti yang kita tau…ada beberapa alamat IP yang di “reserved” untuk keperluan tertentu…apa aja sih alamat2 itu ?? lets checkibrot….

  • Network Address: 192.168.1.[0] , angka 0 untuk ip 192.168.1.X, tidak bisa di gunakan, karena merupakan host/alamat komplek dari 192.168.1, untuk additional material tentang IP versi 4, nih gw kasi linknya
  • Broadcast Address: 192.168.1.[255], angka 255 untuk broadcast, jadi ga bisa di pake buat jadi alamat host
  • Default Route: 0.0.0.0 , nanti kita pelajarin lebih lanjutin di routing protocol, intinya adalah alamat 0.0.0.0 ini akan dipakai oleh router sebagai alamat untuk mem-forward packet jika alamat tidak dikenal oleh router itu (bisa jadi di forward ke router tetangga)
  • Loopback: 127.0.0.1, The loopback is a special address that hosts use to direct traffic to themselves (contoh nyata klo lo pengen ngetes LAN card lo ke detek/rusak/improperly placed atau engga…lo coba ke command prompt, cmdàketik 127.0.0.1, alamat LAN card elo itu)
  • Link-local addresses: 169.254.0.0 to 169.254.255.255 (169.254.0.0 /16) are designated as link-local addresses. These addresses can be automatically assigned to the local host by the operating system in environments where no IP configuration is available.
  • TEST-NET address: 192.0.2.0 to 192.0.2.255 (192.0.2.0 /24) is set aside for teaching and learning purposes. These addresses can be used in documentation and network examples. Unlike the experimental addresses, network devices will accept these addresses in their configurations. You may often find these addresses used with the domain names example.com or example.net in RFCs, vendor, and protocol documentation. Addresses within this block should not appear on the Internet.

IP Class

All zero means 0

All ones means 255

(network and broadcast address)

The allocation of these addresses inside the networks should be planned and documented for the purpose of:

  • Preventing duplication of addresses

    ’nuff said

  • Providing and controlling access

    Who access this and who can’t access that…bla bla bla…

  • Monitoring security and performance

    If we have proper planning and documentation of the network addressing, we can identify the device on the network that has a problematic address

Some consideration are planning to allocate address based on type of host

examples of different types of hosts are:

  • End devices for users
  • Servers and peripherals
  • Hosts that are accessible from the Internet
  • Intermediary devices

Jadi klo finance..bikinnya 192.168.2.X, klo accounting 192.168.3.X, untuk server bisa kita pake 10.1.1.X…dan sebagainya, biar ngaturnya gampang dan mudah diingat

Lalu…apakah suatu host bisa diakses dari luar network ato tidak ?? klo iya…mungkin kita harus memikirkan untuk memakai public address (minta ke ISP tentunya ^_^ )

Contoh dari network 172.16.x.0 IP address allocation

IP addressing Organization

Gw copas aja de…

Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) ( http://www.iana.net ) is the master holder of the IP addresses. The IP multicast addresses and the IPv6 addresses are obtained directly from IANA. Until the mid-1990s, all IPv4 address space was managed directly by the IANA. At that time, the remaining IPv4 address space was allocated to various other registries to manage for particular purposes or for regional areas. These registration companies are called Regional Internet Registries (RIRs), as shown in the figure.

The major registries are:

AfriNIC (African Network Information Centre) – Africa Region http://www.afrinic.net (satu2 nya region yang alamat IPv4 nya blum habis..wkwkkw…guess yourself why)

APNIC (Asia Pacific Network Information Centre) – Asia/Pacific Region http://www.apnic.net

ARIN (American Registry for Internet Numbers) – North America Region http://www.arin.net

LACNIC (Regional Latin-American and Caribbean IP Address Registry) – Latin America and some Caribbean Islands http://www.lacnic.net

RIPE NCC (Reseaux IP Europeans) – Europe, the Middle East, and Central Asia http://www.ripe.net

Links:

IPv4 address registries allocations:

http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1466.txt?number=1466

http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2050.txt?number=2050

IPV4 Addresses allocation: http://www.iana.org/ipaddress/ip-addresses.htm

Setelah kita baca diatas tentang organisasi yang mengatur IP Address di regional / benua

Kali ini kita membahas COMPANY yang bergerak dibidang pengaturan address…tau siapa ???? YA…ISP (Internet Service Provider)

Tier 1: The primary advantages for customers of Tier 1 ISPs are reliability and speed.

Tier 2:

Tier 3:

Tier2 ini hanya semacam gambaran….coba lo Tanya ISP2 baik di nasional maupun international…masing2 menganggap diri mereka itu Tier nomor 1.

Pengelompokan ini tidak ada pengaturannya, paling hanya diambil dari seberapa banyaknya IP yang mereka “pegang”, berapa banyak Autonomous System (lo bakal belajar di routing protocol) yang mereka punya, seberapa besar traffic mereka, dll…itu saja yg di compare antar ISP.

Sebenernya gw mo bahas IPv6 disini…Cuma akan terlalu banyak, gw akan bahas ini di pembahasan terpisah BESERTA KONFIGURASI2 dan IMPLEMENTASINYA pada CISCO Network Devices

*untuk catatan gw…1:6.3.6( (untuk gw….lo ga usa pusing2 ^_^V)

===========================================

mari kita bahas lebih dalam SUBNET MASK…

SUBNET MASK – Memisahkan Network and Host Portion

Contoh soal : menentukan network address dari alamat 172.16.132.70 /20

Tambahkan binary subnet mask /20

Binary Host Address di JUMLAH dengan Binary Network Address (dengan logika matematika bernama “AND”)

AND Logic :

Angka 1 ketemu angka 1 hasilnya 1

SISANYA 0 (Hasilnya 0)

Angka 1 ketemu angka 0 hasilnya 0

Angka 0 ketemu angka 1 hasilnya 0

Angka 0 ketemu angka 0 hasilnya 0

Hasilnya adalah : Host address dengan ip 172.16.132.70 /20 Networknya adalah 172.16.128.0

Subnet – How to Divide

/23, /25, /19, /27…

Kita punya perusahaan…punya 60 orang karyawan, kita bisa saja memakai 192.168.1.0 dengan 253 Host nya…

Tapi apakah ga mubazir…253-60 = 193 alamat host lagi kebuang percuma…

Oleh karena itu marilah kita memakai Variable Length Subnet Mask (VLSM)

255 means 1111 1111 <– reminder

1 Network Address (192.168.1.0) and 1 Broadcast Address (192.168.1.255)…itu artinya dari 255…dikurang 2..jadi 253 Host yang bisa terpakai

/29 = 32-29 = 3…3 Host (kita bisa baca 3 angka 0 [NOL] )

Example….

192.168.1.0 /24 = 1100 0000 . 1010 1000 . 0000 0001 . 0000 0000 (32-24 = 8 Zero) = 1 Subnet = 253 Host

192.168.1.0 /25 = 1100 0000 . 1010 1000 . 0000 0001 . 1000 0000 (32-25 = 7 Zero) = 2 Subnet = 126 Host (didapat dari 128-2)

192.168.1.0 /26 = 1100 0000 . 1010 1000 . 0000 0001 . 1100 0000 (32-26 = 6 Zero) = 4 Subnet = 62 Host

192.168.1.0 /27 = 1100 0000 . 1010 1000 . 0000 0001 . 1110 0000 (32-27 = 5 Zero) = 8 Subnet = 30 Host

Jadi…kira2…klo kita punya 60 karyawan….subnet mana yang dipakai ?? untuk “preserve” IP yang ada ??

Orang pintar pasti minum tolak angin *eh* pasti pilih 192.168.1.0 /26

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